EPUB ✺ The New Organon Author Francis Bacon – Anguillais.us

The New Organon Francis Bacon S New Organon, Published In , Was Revolutionary In Its Attempt To Give Formal Philosophical Shape To A New And Rapidly Emerging Experimental Science It Challenged The Entire Edifice Of The Philosophy And Learning Of Bacon S Time, And Left Its Mark On All Subsequent Discussions Of Scientific Method This Volume Presents A New Translation Of The Text Into Modern English By Michael Silverthorne, Together With An Introduction By Lisa Jardine That Sets The Work In The Context Of Bacon S Scientific And Philosophical Activities

EPUB ✺ The New Organon  Author Francis Bacon – Anguillais.us
  • Paperback
  • 292 pages
  • The New Organon
  • Francis Bacon
  • English
  • 21 November 2019
  • 0521564832

    10 thoughts on “EPUB ✺ The New Organon Author Francis Bacon – Anguillais.us


  1. says:

    Since I ve lately read Aristotle s original, I thought I d go ahead and read Bacon s New Organon The titleor less says it all For this book is an attempt to recast the method of the sciences in a better mold Whereas Aristotle spends pages and pages enumerating the various types of syllogisms, Bacon dismisses it all with one wave of the hand away with such scholarly nonsense Because Aristotle is so single mindedly deductive, his scientific research came to naught or, as Bacon puts it, Since I ve lately read Aristotle s original, I thought I d go ahead and read Bacon s New Organon The titleor less says it all For this book is an attempt to recast the method of the sciences in a better mold Whereas Aristotle spends pages and pages enumerating the various types of syllogisms, Bacon dismisses it all with one wave of the hand away with such scholarly nonsense Because Aristotle is so single mindedly deductive, his scientific research came to naught or, as Bacon puts it, Aristotle, who made his natural philosophy a mere bond servant to his logic, thereby rendered it contentious and well nigh useless What is needed is not deduction which draws trivial conclusions form absurd premises but induction More specifically, what is needed is a great deal of experiments, the results of which the careful scientist can sort into air tight conclusions Down with the syllogism up with experiment Down with the schoolmen up with the scientists.In my admittedly snotty review of Bacon s Essays, I remarked that he would have done better to have written a work entirely in aphorisms Little did I know that Bacon did just that, and it is this book Whatever Bacon s defects were as a politician or a philosopher, Bacon is the undisputed master of the pithy, punchy maxim In fact, his writing style can be almost sickening, so dense is it with aphorism, so rich is it with metaphor, so replete is it with compressed thought.In the first part of his New Organon all of the defects of Bacon s style are absent, and all of his strengths are present in full force Indeed, if this work consisted of only the first part, it would have merited five stars, for it is a tour de force Bacon systematically goes through all of the errors the human mind is prone to when investigating nature, leaving no stone unturned and no vices unexamined, damning them all in epigram after epigram The reader hardly has time to catch his breath from one astonishing insight, when Bacon is on to another.Among these insights are, of course, Bacon s famous four idols We have the Idol of the Tribe, which consist of the errors humans are wont to make by virtue of their humanity For our eyes, our ears, and our very minds distort reality in a systematic way something earlier philosophers had, so far as I know, neglected to account for We have then the Idols of the Cave, which are the foibles of the individual person, over and above the common limitations of our species Of these may include certain pet theories, preferences, accidents of background, peculiarities of taste And then finally we have the Idols of the Market Place, which are caused by the deceptive nature of language and words, as well as the Idols of the Theater, which consists of the various dogmas present in the universities and schools.Bacon also displays a remarkable insight into psychology He points out that humans are pattern seeking animals, which leads us to sometimes see patterns which aren t there The human understanding is of its own nature prone to suppose the existence oforder and regularity in the world than it finds Bacon also draws the distinction, made so memorable in Isaiah Berlin s essay, between foxes and hedgehogs some minds are stronger and apter to mark the differences of things, others to mark their resemblances Bacon also notes, in terms no psychologist could fault, a description of confirmation bias The human understanding when it has once adopted an opinion either as being the received opinion or as being agreeable to itself draws all things else to support and agree with it And though there be a greater number and weight of instances to be found on the other side, or else by some distinction sets aside and rejects, in order that by this great and pernicious predetermination the authority of its former conclusions may remain inviolate.Part two, on the other hand, is a tedious, rambling affair, which makes the patient reader almost forget the greatness of the first half Here, Bacon moves on from condemning the errors of others to setting up his own system In his opinion, scientific enquiry is a simple matter of tabulation make a table of every situation in which a given phenomenon is always found, and then make a table of every situation in which a given phenomenon is never found finally, make a table of every situation in which said phenomenon is sometimes found, shake well, and out comes your answer.The modern reader will not recognize the scientific method in this process For we now know that Bacon s induction is not sufficient Though, he does use his method to draw an accurate conclusion about the nature of heatHeat is a motion, expansive, restrained, and acting in its strife upon the smaller particles of bodiesWhat Bacon describes isor less what we d now call natural history , a gathering up of facts and a noting of regularities But the scientific method proper requires the framing of hypotheses The hypothesis is key, because it determines what facts need to be collected, and what relationship those facts will have with the theory in question Otherwise, the buzzing world of facts is too lush and fecund to tabulate there are simply too many facts Further, Bacon makes the somewhat na ve though excusable, I think assumption that a fact is simply a fact, whereas we now know that facts are basically meaningless unless contextualized and, in science, it is the theory in question which contextualizes said facts.The importance of hypotheses also makes deduction farimportant than Bacon acknowledges For the aspiring experimentalist must often go through a long chain of deductive reasoning before he can determine what experiment should be performed in order to test a theory In short, science relies on both deductive and inductive methods, and the relationship of theory to data is farintertwined than Bacon apparently thinks As a side note, I d also like to point out that Bacon wasn t much of a scientist himself he brings up the Copernican view of the heliocentric solar system many times, only to dismiss it as ridiculous, and also seems curiously unaware of the other scientific advances of his day In a review of David Hume s Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, I somewhat impertinently remarked that the English love examples or, to use aEnglish word, instances I hope not to offend any English readers, but Bacon confirms me in this prejudice for the vast bulk of this work is a tedious enumeration of twenty seven yes, that s almost thirty types of instances to be found in nature Needless to say, this long and dry list of the different sorts of instances makes for both dull reading and bad philosophy, for I doubt any scientist in the history of the world ever made progress by sorting his results into one of Bacon s categories.So the brilliant, brash, and brazen beginning of this book fizzles out into pedantry that, ironically enough, rivals even Aristotle s original Organon So, to repeat myself, the title of this bookor less says it all


  2. says:

    This book is amazing In philosophy and theorygenerally, it s a mistake to talk about things being ahead of their time, because there are always assholes clinging onto false and blatantly idiotic notions see natural law and or divine command theory for an example and keeping them contemporary, not even to mention that most of the world s public life is still based on not even interesting ancient myths It s also the case that really most of the intellectual paths one may take were sketch This book is amazing In philosophy and theorygenerally, it s a mistake to talk about things being ahead of their time, because there are always assholes clinging onto false and blatantly idiotic notions see natural law and or divine command theory for an example and keeping them contemporary, not even to mention that most of the world s public life is still based on not even interesting ancient myths It s also the case that really most of the intellectual paths one may take were sketched out in ancient Greek, Indian, or Chinese philosophy Of course Bacon s writing on science here is dated, but that is natural Bacon did not have a time machine, after all, and it s good that he didn t, because he would probably have been severely depressed by the limited intellectual progress of human beings this many years after his lifetime, and would have stopped writing entirely What s amazing about this book is how sharp and concise Bacon is in his attacks on various stray intellectual paths, human follies of reason, and assorted other bullshit Bacon s enumeration of the Idols that stand between enlightenment and us is still relevant today very sadly relevant , and his writing remains vastly important both historically and philosophically Parts of this book read like very, very early analytic philosophy Bacon is, at least, very good at understanding the role of philosophy and the role of science in intellectual progress


  3. says:

    Through these pages it becomes keenly aware that Francis Bacon was a top notch observationalist His in depth analysis of heat and cold are fascinating to the modern mind The permutations he arrives at put to shame any wikipedia entry that could be mounted on the matter Perhaps the most striking element to this book is the rigourous sense of faith which stands tall alongside his earnest desire for inductive reasoning as a method to penetrate nature Across the text Bacon makes reference to V Through these pages it becomes keenly aware that Francis Bacon was a top notch observationalist His in depth analysis of heat and cold are fascinating to the modern mind The permutations he arrives at put to shame any wikipedia entry that could be mounted on the matter Perhaps the most striking element to this book is the rigourous sense of faith which stands tall alongside his earnest desire for inductive reasoning as a method to penetrate nature Across the text Bacon makes reference to Virgil, Galileo, Plato, He who can properly define and divide is to be considered a god , Aristotle, and ancient Greek Philosophers, including, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Leucippus, Democritus, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Xenophanes, Philolaus, he omits Pythagoras for being superstitious and Biblical passages, of Daniel Solomon.On why we must doubt our knowing from the onset, Bacon discusses the difference betweeen an immediate apprehension of true nature, which he believes is restricted to divine and possibly angelic intelligences, whereas humans, he urges, must make use of a different kind of approach But is is only for God the bestower and creater of forms , and perhaps for angels and intelligences, at once to recognize forms affirmatively at the first glance of contemplation man, at least, is unable to do so, and is only allowed to proceed first by negatives, and then to conclude with affirmatives, after every species of exclusion Of how to approach this new way of thinking Bacon makes an analogy to how the French came to Italy Alexander Borgia said of the expedition of the French into Italy that they came with chalk in their hands to mark up their lodgings, and not with weapons to force their passage Even so do we wish our philosophy to make its way quietly into those minds that are fit for it, and of good capacity for we have no need of contention where we differ in first principles, and in our very notions, and even in our forms of demonstration The book, which catalyzed the origins of what became, for some, a bastion of reductive materialism, is highly faithful, and makes no claims as to create anything contrariwise to the faith of a man, simply instead, giving him tools to unlock nature s secrets The book concludes with a poetic homage to Man s fall from grace, and means for partial return, a poetic touch, no doubt For man, by the fall, lost at once his state of innocence and his empire over creation, both of which can be partially recovered even in this life, the first by religion and faith, the second by the arts and sciences For creation did not become entirely and utterly rebellious by the curse, but in consequence of the Divine decree, in the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread , she is compelled by our labors not assuredly by our disputes or magical ceremonies , at length to afford mankind in some degree his bread, that is to say, to supply man s daily wants Francis Bacon, Novum OrganumFor a complete version of this review you may visit my blog and type Bacon in the search box


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  5. says:

    The New Organon forms part of the great renewal, or Instauratio magna, an ambitious practical and theoretical project to overhaul and reform the way in which man investigates nature Bacon divides his project into six parts one a summary of current knowledge, two the New Organon itself, which sets out the method to be followed and seeks to prepare the mind for investigation, three a complete natural history, that will provide the foundations for this investigation, four examples of the kind The New Organon forms part of the great renewal, or Instauratio magna, an ambitious practical and theoretical project to overhaul and reform the way in which man investigates nature Bacon divides his project into six parts one a summary of current knowledge, two the New Organon itself, which sets out the method to be followed and seeks to prepare the mind for investigation, three a complete natural history, that will provide the foundations for this investigation, four examples of the kind of investigation Bacon s method would produce, five specific practical discoveries that he has made, which serve as a kind of interest payment before the capital sum of the complete theory is known, six the real philosophy, completely explained Bacon doubts his own ability to complete the project, particularly the last section he calls for royal patronage to help realize the project As he imagines it, however, the Great Renewal will reform both epistemology the philosophy of knowledge and practice It will alter the way we think about truth in nature, and how we try to uncover that truth


  6. says:

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  7. says:

    We could say that Francis Bacon, a seventeenth century scholar, certainly revolutionized Western thought by proposing new forms of researching the natural philosophies His inductive method predicate, first, freeing the human mind of its idols , that distract and corrupt it, and then, by cautious and comparative observations, formulating new general laws, which would illuminate the path to new discoveries As for the book itself, reading it was somewhat difficult, for two reasons in my view We could say that Francis Bacon, a seventeenth century scholar, certainly revolutionized Western thought by proposing new forms of researching the natural philosophies His inductive method predicate, first, freeing the human mind of its idols , that distract and corrupt it, and then, by cautious and comparative observations, formulating new general laws, which would illuminate the path to new discoveries As for the book itself, reading it was somewhat difficult, for two reasons in my view first, I ve never read the Aristotle s books of Natural Sciences and, consequently, I know nothing about the scholastic thought to which Bacon is opposite second, the examples he provides are a bit confusing because of the way he describes them, especially his concepts of form and matter Maybe it s too much abstraction for me, but I think I could grasp the main idea of the text


  8. says:

    Sheer brilliance Pure genius Bacon lets the old medieval school systems and so called science have it This isn t just the foundation of the scientific method but the destruction of centuries old nonsense and faulty thinking Brutally efficient, Bacon is also piercingly insightful to not only the human psyche but also on how to investigate and understand Nature Judging by the success of his project, I d say he laid a rock solid foundation for future generations to enjoy the fruits of science.


  9. says:

    Read this in a sitting a month ago I thought it was pretty amazing how much his scientific vision corresponds to our modern one I guess he laid some serious foundations for modern scientific epistemology and research.

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